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Phytochemical Section

Ogunwenmo, K. Olusola [1], Adebiyi, Abimbola E. [1].

Comparative Phytochemical analysis of three varieties of Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabaceae).

Arachis hypogaea L. (groundnut) is the most important source of vegetable oil, apart from soybean, o­n a world scale and o­ne of the best sources of plant proteins for man. The seeds of three varieties of the species were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the petroleum, alcohol and water extracts of the three varieties - Far North (FN), Middle Belt (MB) and Local (LC) showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, antraquinones, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides. Thin Layer Chromatography of the Arachis oil gave five spots for the FN and six spots for MB and LC. Colorimetric analysis showed that the FN had the highest color concentration (7668 Pt. Co) due to its intense golden yellow oil followed by LC (3981 Pt. Co) which was turbid yellow and MB (3095 Pt. Co) with light yellow coloration. Thus, the MB had the highest percentage transmittance (81.3 %) while the LC recorded the lowest (77.1%). The MB yielded 31% oil, LC 25% and the FN 24%. Growth experiment showed differences in growth rate and pattern. Growth was fastest in the FN followed by the LC and the MB which possessed 4-6 leaflets per leaf unlike the others with 4 leaflets regularly. Gas Chromatography analysis of oil extract showed that the LC had the highest concentration of oleic (29.2%) and linoleic acids (8.5%) compared to the very low concentration in the FN (0.6, 0.75%) and the MB (0.65, 0.5%).

1 - Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Dept. of Basic & Applied Sciences, PMB 21244, Ikeja, Lagos, Lagos, 100-001, Nigeria

Arachis hypogaea
Phytochemical analysis
Color cocentration
Oil yield
Oleic and linoleic acids.

Presentation Type: Poster
Session: 32-67
Location: Special Event Center (Cliff Lodge)
Date: Tuesday, August 3rd, 2004
Time: 12:30 PM
Abstract ID:552

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